CLINIC NOTE 133号(2016年08月号) 特集「心筋症の猫への対処と麻酔」

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■特集「心筋症の猫への対処と麻酔」猫の心筋症の病態生理と診断
1) Payne JR, Brodbelt DC, Luis Fuentes V, ‘Cardiomyopathy prevalence in 780 apparently healthy cats in rehoming centres (the CatScan study)’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S244-257.
2) 日本循環器学会,「肥大型心筋症の診療に関するガイドライン」, 2012.
3) Häggström J, Luis Fuentes V, Wess G, ‘Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S134-149.
4) Ferasin L, ‘Feline myocardial disease. 1: Classification, pathophysiology and clinical presentation’, J Feline Med Surg 11(1), 2009, 3-13.
5) Kittleson MD, Meurs KM, Harris SP, ‘The genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats and humans’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S53-73.
6) 村川裕二 監修,『新 病態生理できった内科学 1循環器疾患』第2版, 東京, 医学教育出版社, 2009.
7) Johns SM, Nelson OL, Gay JM, ‘Left atrial function in cats with left-sided cardiac disease and pleural effusion or pulmonary edema’, J Vet Intern Med 26(5), 2012, 1134-1139.
8) Schober KE, Maerz I, ‘Assessment of left atrial appendage flow velocity and its relation to spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in 89 cats with myocardial disease’, J Vet Intern Med 20(1), 2006, 120-130.
9)T ablin F, Schumacher T, Pombo M, et al.,‘ Platelet activation in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, J Vet Intern Med 28(2), 2014, 411-418.
10) Côté E, MacDonald KA, Meurs KM, et al., Feline Cardiology , Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
11)B orgeat K, Connolly DJ, Luis Fuentes V,‘ Cardiac biomarkers in cats’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S74-86.
12)G uglielmini C, Diana A,‘ Thoracic radiography in the cat: Identification of cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S87-101.
13)G uglielmini C, Baron Toaldo M, Poser H, et al.,‘ Diagnostic accuracy of the vertebral heart score and other radiographic indices in the detection of cardiac enlargement in cats with different cardiac disorders’, J Feline Med Surg 16(10), 2014, 812-825.
14)L itster AL, Buchanan JW,‘ Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs of cats’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 216(2), 2000, 210-214.
15)S chober KE, Maerz I, Ludewig E, et al.,‘ Diagnostic accuracy of electrocardiography and thoracic radiography in the assessment of left atrial size in cats: comparison with transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography’, J Vet Intern Med 21(4), 2007, 709- 718.
16)F erasin L,‘ Feline myocardial disease 2: diagnosis, prognosis and clinical management’, J Feline Med Surg 11(3), 2009, 183- 194.
17) Fox PR, Maron BJ, Basso C, et al., ‘Spontaneously occurring arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the domestic cat: A new animal model similar to the human disease’, Circulation 102(15), 2000, 1863-1870.
18) Adin DB, Diley-Poston L, ‘Papillary muscle measurements in cats with normal echocardiograms and cats with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy’, J Vet Intern Med 21(4), 2007, 737-741.
19)C ampbell FE, Kittleson MD,‘ The effect of hydration status on the echocardiographic measurements of normal cats’, J Vet Intern Med 21(5), 2007, 1008-1015.
20) Abbott JA, MacLean HN, ‘Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of the feline left atrium’, J Vet Intern Med 20(1), 2006, 111-119.
21)T rehiou-Sechi E, Tissier R, Gouni V, et al.,‘ Comparative echocardiographic and clinical features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 5 breeds of cats: a retrospective analysis of 344 cases (2001-2011)’, J Vet Intern Med 26(3), 2012, 532-541.

■特集「心筋症の猫への対処と麻酔」心疾患をもつ猫が来院したら ―急性の呼吸不全を呈する場合―
1) Côté E, Manning AM, Emerson D, et al.,‘Assessment of the prevalence of heart murmurs in overtly healthy cats’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 225(3), 2004, 384-388.
2) Paige CF, Abbott JA, Elvinger F, et al.,‘Prevalence of cardiomyopathy in apparently healthy cats’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 234(11), 2009, 1398-1403.
3) Wagner T, Fuentes VL, Payne JR, et al.,‘Comparison of auscultatory and echocardiographic findings in healthy adult cats’, J Vet Cardiol 12(3), 2010, 171-182.
4) Nakamura RK, Rishniw M, King MK, et al.,‘Prevalence of echocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease in apparently healthy cats with murmurs’, J Feline Med Surg 13(4), 2011, 266-271.
5) Smith S, Dukes-McEwan J,‘Clinical signs and left atrial size in cats with cardiovascular disease in general practice’, J Small Anim Pract 53(1), 2012, 27-33.
6) Payne JR, Brodbelt DC, Luis Fuentes V,‘Cardiomyopathy prevalence in 780 apparently healthy cats in rehoming centres (the CatScan study)’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S244-257.
7) Côté E, Edwards NJ, Ettinger SJ, et al.,‘Management of incidentally detected heart murmurs in dogs and cats’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 246(10), 2015, 1076-1088.
8) Jackson BL, Lehmkuhl LB, Adin DB, et al.,‘Heart rate and arrhythmia frequency of normal cats compared to cats with asymptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, J Vet Cardiol 16(4), 2014, 215-225.
9) Campbell FE, Kittleson MD,‘The Effect of Hydration Status on the Echocardiographic Measurements of Normal Cats’, J Vet Intern Med 21(5), 2007, 1008–1015.
10) Godiksen MT, Granstrøm S, Koch J, et al.,‘Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in young Maine Coon cats caused by the p.A31P cMyBP-C mutation–the clinical significance of having the mutation’, Acta Vet Scand 2011, 53-57.
11) Longeri M, Ferrari P, Knafelz P, et al.,‘Myosin-binding protein C DNA variants in domestic cats (A31P, A74T, R820W) and their association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, J Vet Intern Med 27(2), 2013, 275-285.
12) Borgeat K, Casamian-Sorrosal D, Helps C, et al.,‘Association of the myosin binding protein C3 mutation (MYBPC3 R820W) with cardiac death in a survey of 236 Ragdoll cats’, J Vet Cardiol 16(2), 2014, 73-80.
13) Granström S, Godiksen MT, Christiansen M, et al.,‘Genotype-phenotype correlation between the cardiac myosin binding protein C mutation A31P and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a cohort of Maine Coon cats: a longitudinal study’, J Vet Cardiol 17, 2015, Suppl 1, S268-281.
14)M aron BJ, Fox PR,‘ Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in man and cats’, J Vet Cardiol 17, Suppl 1, 2015, S6-9.
15) 日本獣医循環器学会認定委員会 監修, 「13. 犬と猫の心筋症 ―総論―」,「15. 猫の心筋症 ―各論1―」,「16. 猫の心筋症 ―各論2―」,『犬と 猫の心臓病学』上巻, 東京, インターズー, 2014.
16) Laste NJ, Harpster NK,‘A retrospective study of 100 cases of feline distal aortic thromboembolism:1977-1993’, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31(6), 1995, 492-500.
17) Côté E, Jaeger R,‘Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in 106 Cats: Associated Structural Cardiac Disorders’, J Vet Intern Med 22(6), 2008, 1444–1446.
18) Fox PR, Schober KA,‘Management of asymptomatic (occult) feline cardiomyopathy: challenges and realities’, J Vet Cardiol 17, 2015, Suppl 1, S150-158.
19) Jackson BL, Adin DB, Lehmkuhl LB, ‘Effect of atenolol on heart rate, arrhythmias, blood pressure, and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in cats with subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, J Vet Cardiol 17, 2015, Suppl 1, S296-305.
20) Schober KE, Zientek J, Li X, et al.,‘Effect of treatment with atenolol on 5-year survival in cats with preclinical (asymptomatic) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, J Vet Cardiol 15(2), 2013, 93-104.
21) Jung SW, Kittleson MD,‘The Effect of Atenolol on NT-proBNP and Troponin in Asymptomatic Cats with Severe Left Ventricular Hypertrophy because of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Pilot Study’, J Vet Intern Med 25(5), 2011, 1044–1049.
22) MacDonald KA, Kittleson MD, Kass PH, et al.,‘Effect of Spironolactone on Diastolic Function and Left Ventricular Mass in Maine Coon Cats with Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy’, J Vet Intern Med 22(2), 2008, 335–341.
23) Swift S, Dukes-McEwan J, Fonfara S, et al.,‘Aetiology and outcome in 90 cats presenting with dyspnoea in a referral population’, J Small Anim Pract 50(9), 2009, 466-473.
24) Borgeat K, Wright J, Garrod O, et al.,‘Arterial Thromboembolism in 250 Cats in General Practice:2004–2012’, J Vet Intern Med 28(1), 2014,102–108.
25) Kellum HB, Stepien RL,‘Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block in 21 Cats (1997–2004)’, J Vet Intern Med 20(1), 2006, 97– 103.
26) Gordon SG, Côté E,‘Pharmacotherapy of feline cardiomyopathy: chronic management of heart failure’, J Vet Cardiol 17, 2015, Suppl 1, 159-172.
27) Westfall DS, Twedt DC, Steyn PF, et al.,‘Evaluation of esophageal transit of tablets and capsules in 30 cats’, J Vet Intern Med 15(5), 2001, 467-470.
28) McGrotty YL, Knottenbelt CM,‘Oesophageal stricture in a cat due to oral administration of tetracyclines’, J Small Anim Pract 43 (5), 2002, 221-223.
29)G erman AJ, Cannon MJ, Dye C, et al.,‘ Oesophageal strictures in cats associated with doxycycline therapy’, J Feline Med Surg 7(1), 2005, 33-41.
30) Beatty JA, Swift N, Foster DJ, et al.,‘Suspected clindamycin-associated oesophageal injury in cats: five cases’, J Feline Med Surg 8(6), 2006, 412-419.
31)Plumb DC, Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook : Pocket 7th ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

■特集「心筋症の猫への対処と麻酔」肥大型心筋症の猫に全身麻酔をかけるとき
1)Ware WA,‘ Myocardial diseases of the cat’, Small Animal Internal Medicine 3rd ed.( Nelson RW, Couto CG eds.), St Louis, Mosby, 2003, pp 122-133.
2)Fuentes VL, ‘Management of feline myocardial disease’, Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIV ,(Bonagura JD, Twedt DC eds.), St. Louis, Saunders, 2009, pp.809-815.
3)Meurs KM, Norgard MM, Edererm MM, et al.,‘ A substitution mutation in the myosin binding protein C gene in ragdoll hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, Genomics 90(2), 2007, 261-264.
4)Atkins CE, Gallo AM, Kurzman ID, et al., ‘Risk factors, clinical signs, and survival in cats with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: 74 cases (1985-1989.)’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 201(4), 1992, 613-618.
5)Belanger MC, ‘Echocardiography’, Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 7th ed.(Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC eds.), St. Louis, Saunders Elsevier, 2010, pp.415-431.
6)Bright JM, Golden AL, Gompf RE, et al.,‘ Evaluation of the calcium channel-blocking agents diltiazem and verapamil for treatment of feline hypertrophic caradiomyopathy’, J Vet Intern Med 5(5), 1991, 272-282.
7)Ribas T, Bublot I, Junot S, et al., ‘Effects of intramuscular sedation with alfaxalone and butorphanol on echocardiographic measurements in healthy cats’, J Feline Med Surg 17(6), 2015, 530-536.
8)Brodbelt DC, Blissitt KJ, Hammond RA, et al.,‘ The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities’, Vet Anaesth Analg 35(5), 2008, 365-373.
9)Lamont LA, Bulmer BJ, Sisson DD, et al.,‘ Doppler echocardiographic effects of medetomidine on dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in cats’, J Am Vet Med Assoc 221(9), 2002, 1276-1281.
10)Wiese AJ, Barter LS, Ilkiw JE, et al.,‘ Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of incremental doses of dopamine and phenylephrine in the management of isoflurane-induced hypotension in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy’, Am J Vet Res 73(6), 2012, 908-916.
11)Abbott JA,‘ Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an update’, Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 40(4), 2010, 685-700.
12)Popescu WM, ‘Heart failure and cardiomyopathies’, Stolting’s Anesthesia and Co-existing Disease 5th ed.(Hines RL, Marschall KE eds.), Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone, 2008, pp.103-124.
13)Morgan GE, Mikhail MS, Murray MJ, ‘Anesthesia for patients with cardiovascular disease’, Clinical Anesthesiology 4th ed.(Morgan GE, Mikhail MS, Murray MJ eds. ), New York, McGraw-Hill Medical, 2005, pp.441-489.

■連載「腹部エコーを読む」Case22 間欠的な嘔吐を示した犬の1例
1)Kealy JK, McAllister H, Graham JP, Diagnostic radiology and Ultrasonography of the Dog and Cat 5th ed., Saunders, 2010.
2)Penninck D, D’Anjou MA, Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography , Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
3)Marolf AJ, Bachand AM, Sharber J, et al.,‘ Comparison of endoscopy and sonography findings in dogs and cats with histologically confirmed gastric neoplasia’, J Small Anim Pract 56(5), 2015, 339-344.
4)Easton S,‘ A retrospective study into the effects of operator experience on the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of gastric neoplasia in dogs’, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 42(1), 2001, 47-50.
5)日本医学放射線学会, 日本放射線科専門医会 編,『 画像診断ガイドライン2013年版』, 東京, 金原出版, 2013.
6)桃井康行,三浦直樹 著, 桃井康行 監修,『犬と猫の画像診断ブック』, 東京, ファームプレス, 2015.